Stimulates digestive juices and improves appetite. The ‘bitter’ principle was named ‘cnicin’ by Nativelle in 1839. He proposed that bitter foods increased appetite and improved digestion by first stimulating the ‘bitter’ taste buds on the tongue, activating secretion of saliva and digestive juices, thus supporting efficient digestion, protecting digestive tract tissues, and enhancing bile flow and pancreatic functions.